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A Holocaust Timeline 1930 - 1947

 

1930:

 

September 14 - Adolf Hitlers National Socialist Party gains 107 seats in the new German Reichstag. The Nazis are now the second largest political party in Germany.

 

1932:

 

April 10 - In the run-off election in German presidency, Adolf Hitler loses to President Hindenberg. However, he did get 37% of the vote and calls the results a "victory for the National Socialism".

 

July 31 - The Nazi party doubled in seats from 107 to 229 in the Reichstag.

 

1933:

 

January 30 - Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany a nation with a Jewish population of 566,000.

 

March 22 - Nazis open Dachau concentration camp near Munich, to be followed by Buchenwald near Weimar in central Germany, Sachsenhausen near Berlin in northern Germany, and Ravensbruck for women.

 

March 24 - German Parliament passes Enabling Act giving Hitler dictatorial powers.

 

April 1 - Nazis stage boycott of Jewish shops and businesses.

 

July 14 - Nazi Party is declared the only legal party in Germany; Also, Nazis pass Law to strip Jewish immigrants from Poland of their German citizenship.

 

September 29 - Nazis prohibit Jews from owning land.

 

November 24 - Nazis pass a Law against Habitual and Dangerous Criminals, which allows beggars, the homeless, alcoholics and the unemployed to be sent to concentration camps.

 

1934: 

 

January 24 -Jews are banned from the German Labor Front.

 

May 17 - Jews not allowed national health insurance.

 

August 2 - German President von Hindenburg dies. Hitler becomes Fuhrer.

 

August 19 - Hitler receives a 90 percent vote from German voters approving his new powers.

 

1935:

June 26 - Nazis pass law allowing forced abortions on women to prevent them from passing on hereditary diseases.

 

1936:

 

Febuary 10 - The German Gestapo (secret police) is placed above the law.

 

June 17 - Heinrich Himmler is appointed chief of the German Gestapo.

 

1937:

 

January - Jews are banned from many professional occupations including teaching Germans, and from being accountants or dentist. They are also denied tax reductions and child allowances.

 

1938:

 

March - After the Anschluss, the SS is placed in charge of Jewish affairs in Austria with Adolf Eichmann establishing an Office for Jewish Emigration in Vienna. Himmler then establishes Mauthausen concentration camp near Linz.

 

July - At Evian, France, the U.S. convenes a League of Nations conference with delegates from 32 countries to consider helping Jews fleeing Hitler, but results in inaction as no country will accept them.

 

July 23 - Nazis order Jews over age 15 to apply for identity cards from the police, to be shown on demand to any police officer.

 

July 25- Jewish doctors prohibited by law from practicing medicine.

 

August 17 -Nazis require Jewish women to add Sarah and men to add Israel to their names on all legal documents including passports.

 

October 5 - Law requires Jewish passports to be stamped with a large red "J".

 
November 15 - Jewish pupils are expelled from all non-Jewish German schools.

 

1939:

 

March 15/16 - Nazi troops seize Czechoslovakia (Jewish pop. 350,000).

 

April 30 - Jews lose rights as tenants and are relocated into Jewish houses.

 

In May - The St.Louis, a ship crowded with 930 Jewish refugees, is turned away by Cuba, the United States and other countries and returns to Europe.

September 1 - Nazis invade Poland (Jewish pop. 3.35 million, the larges in Europe). Beginning of SS activity in Poland.

September 3 - England and France declare war on Germany.

 

October - Nazis begin euthanasia on sick and disabled in Germany.

 

November 23 - Yellow stars required to be worn by Polish Jews over age 10.

 

1940: 

 

January 25 - Nazis choose the town of Oswiecim (Auschwitz) in Poland near Krakow as site of new concentration camp.

 

April 9 - Nazis invade Denmark (Jewish pop. 8,000) and Norway (Jewish pop. 2,000).

 

May 10 - Nazis invade France (Jewish pop 350,000), Belgium (Jewish pop. 65,000), Holland (Jewish pop.140,000), and Luxembourg (Jewish pop. 3.500).

 

October 7 - Nazis invade Romania (Jewish pop. 34,000).

 

November - Hungary, Romanis, and Slovakia become Nazi Allies.

 

1941:

 

In 1941 - Hans Frank, Gauleiter of Poland, states, "I ask nothing of the Jews except that they should disappear."

Febuary 22- 430 Jewish hostages are deported from Amsterdam after a Dutch Nazi is killed by Jews.

March 2 - Nazis occupy Bulgaria (Jewish pop. 50,000).

 

April 6 - Nazis invade Yugoslavia (Jewish pop. 75,000) and Greece (Jewish pop. 77,000).

 

June 22 - Nazis invade the Soviet Union (Jewish pop. 3 million).

 

July 21 - In occupied Poland near Lublin, Majdanek concentration camp becomes operational.

 

September 3 - The first test use of Zyklon-B gas at Auschwitz.

 

September 7 - German Jews ordered to wear yellow stars.

 

September 17 - Beginning of general deportation of German Jews.

 

October - 35,000 Jews from Odessa shot.

 

December 7 - Japanese attack United States at Pearl Harbor. The next day the U.S. and Britain declare war on Japan.

 

December 8 - In occupied Poland, near Lodz, Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational. Jews taked there are placed in mobile gas vans and driven to a burial place while carbon monoxide from the engine exhaust is fed into the sealed rear compartment, killing them. The first gassing victims include 5,000 Gypsies who had been deported from Reich to Lodz.

 

December 11 - Hitler declares war on the United States. Roosevelt then declares war on Germany saying, "Never before has there been a greater challenge to life, liberty and civilization." The U.S.A then enters the war in Europe and will concentrate nearly 90 percent of its military resources to defeat Hitler.

 

1942:

 

January, 1942 - Mass killings of Jews using Zykon-B begin at Auschwitz-Birkenau in Bunker I in Birkenau with the bodies being buried in mass graves in a nearby meadow.

 

January 31 - SS Einstzgruppe A reports a tally of 229,052 Jews killed.

 

March - In Poland, extermination camp, Belzec, becomes operational. The camp is fitted with permanent gas chambers using carbon monoxide piped in from engines placed outside the chamber.

 

April 20 - German Jews are banned from using public transportation.

 

May 18 - The New York Times reports on an inside page that Nazis have machine-gunned over 100,000 Jews in the Baltic States, 100,000 in Poland and twice as many in western Russia.

 

June 1 - Jews in France, Holland, Belgium, Croatia, Slovakia, Romania ordered to wear yellow stars.

 

June 5 - SS report 97,000 persons have been "processed" in mobile gas vans.

 

June 30 and July 2 - The New York Times reports via the London Daily Telegraph that over 1,000,000 Jews have already been killed by Nazis.

 

July 23 - Treblinka extermination camp opened in occupied Poland, east of Warsaw. The camp is fitted with two buildings containing 10 gas chambers, each holding 200 persons. Carbon monoxide gas is piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but Zyklon-B will later be substituted. Bodies are burned in open pits.

 

September 9 - Open pit burning of bodies begins at Auschwitz in place of burial. The decision is made to dig up and burn those already buried, 107,000 corpses, to prevent fouling of ground water.

 

November - The mass killing of 170,000 Jews in the area of Bialystok.

 

December - Exterminations at Belzec cease after an estimated 600,000 Jews have been murdered. The camp is then dismantled, and plowed over.

 

1943:

 

January 29 - Nazis order all Gypsies arrested and sent to extermination camps.

 

March 1 - In New York, NY American Jews hold a mass rally at Madison Square Garden to pressure the U.S. government into helping the Jews of Europe.

 

May 19 - Nazis declare Berlin to be Judenfrei, which means "Cleansed of Jews"

 

August 2 - Two hundred Jews escape from Treblinka extermination camp during a revolt. Nazis then hunt them down one by one.

 

October 14 - Massive escape from Sobibor as Jews and Soviet POWs break out, with 300 making it safely into nearby woods. Of those 300, fifty will survive. Exterminations then cease at Sobibor after 250,000 deaths and all traces of the death camp are removed.

 

November 3 - The U.S. Congress holds hearings regarding the U.S. State Departments inaction regarding European Jews, despite mounting reports of mass extermination.

 

December 16 - The chief surgeon at Auschwitz reports taht 106 castration operations have been performed.

 

1944:

 

January 24 -In response to political pressure to help Jews under Nazi control, Roosevelt creates the War Refugee Board.

 

March 24 - President Roosevelt issues a statement condemning German and Japanese ongoing "crimes against humanity."

 

May 16 - Jews from Hungary arrive at Auschwitz. Eichmann arrives to personally oversee and speed up the extermination process. By May 24, an estimated 100,000 have been gassed. Between May 16 and May 31, the SS report collecting 88 pounds of gold and white metal from the teeth of those gassed. By the end of June, 381,661 persons "half of the Jews in Hungary" arrive at Auschwitz.

 

June - Auschwitz-Birkenau records it's highest-ever daily number of persons gassed and burned at just over 9,000. Six huge pits are used to burn bodies, as the number exceeds the capacity of the crematories.

 

October 30 - Last use of gas chambers at Auschwitz

 

1945:

 

January 27 - Soviet troops liberate Auschwitz. By this time, an estimated 2,000,000 persons, including 1,500,000 Jews, have been murdered there.

 

April 15 - Approximately 40,000 prisoners freed at Bergen-Belsen by the British

 

April 23 - Berlin reached by Soviet troops.

 

April 30 - Hitler commits suicide in his Berlin bunker.

 

May 7 - Unconditional German surrender signed by Gen. Jodl at Reims.

 

May 23 - SS Reichsfuhrer Himmler commits suicide.

 

1946:

 

December 9 - 23 former SS doctors and scientists go on trial before a U.S. Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. Sixteen are found guilty, with 7 being hanged.

 

1947:

 

September 15 - Twenty one former SS Einstaz leaders go on trial before a U.S. Military Tribunal in Nuremberg. Fourteen are sentenced to death, with only 4 being exectured, the others are commuted.

 

 


Professor Comments:

Good timeline; well constructed; highlighted years very helpful; sufficient detail in descriptions without providing too much.